GDScript is a high-level, dynamically typed programming language used to create content. It uses a syntax similar to Python blocks are se don tano parlasse atto unico di salvatore magno se and many keywords are similar. Its goal is to be optimized for and tightly integrated with Godot Engine, allowing great flexibility for content creation and integration.
In the early days, the engine used the Lua scripting language. Lua is fast, but creating bindings to an object oriented system by using fallbacks was complex and slow and took an enormous amount of code. After some experiments with Pythonit also proved difficult to embed. The last third party scripting language that was used for shipped games was Squirrelbut it was dropped as well. The result of these considerations is GDScript. The language and interpreter for GDScript ended up being smaller than the binding code itself for Lua and Squirrel, while having equal functionality.
With time, having a built-in language has proven to be a huge advantage. In the following, an overview is given to GDScript. Details, such as which methods are available to arrays or other objects, should be looked up in the linked class descriptions.
Additionally, identifiers must not begin with a digit. Identifiers are case-sensitive foo is different from FOO. The following is the list of keywords supported by the language. Operators like innotand or or and names of built-in types as listed in the following sections are also reserved. Keywords are defined in the GDScript tokenizer in case you want to take a look under the hood. Anything from a to the end of the line is ignored and is considered a comment.
Learn to Write Typed GDscript in Godot 3.1
Built-in types are stack-allocated. They are passed as values. This means a copy is created on each assignment or when passing them as arguments to functions.
The only exceptions are Array s and Dictionarieswhich are passed by reference so they are shared.The body of a script file is an unnamed class, and it can only be referenced externally as a resource or file.
Class syntax is meant to be compact and can only contain member variables or functions. Static functions are allowed, but not a static member this is in the spirit of thread-safety since scripts can be initialized in separate threads without the user knowing. In the same way, member variables including array and dictionaries are initialized every time an instance is created.
To call a function in the base class i. It is useful because functions in extending classes replace functions with the same name in their base classes. So if we still want to call then, we can use it. The constructors of parent classes are called automatically when inheriting a class. So there is usually no need to call.
Unlike the class of a regular function like in the above example with. A class file can contain inner classes. Inner classes are defined using the class keyword. They are instanced using the ClassName.
Classes stored as files are treated as the resources. They must be loaded form disk to access them in other classes. This is done using the load or preload functions.
Instancing of a loaded class resource is completed by calling the new function on the class object. Class members can be exported. This means their value gets saved with the resource they are attached to. They are available for editing in the property editor.
Exporting is done by using the export keyword:. An exported variable must be initialized to a constant expression or have an export hint in the form of an argument to the export keyword:. One of the significant benefits of exporting member variables is to have them visible and editable in the editor.
Shipping is done by using the export keyword. One of the primary benefits of exporting members' variable is to have them visible and editable in the editor. This way, artists and game designers can modify values that later influence how the programs run. It must be noted that even if the script is not while at the editor, the exported properties are still editable. Restricting a flag in any number of numbered flags is also possible. The syntax is similar to the enumeration syntax.
In the example, Fire has value 1, and Water has value 2, Earth has value 4, and wind corresponds to value 8. Usually, constants should be defined accordingly. Using bit flags requires some understanding of bitwise operations. If in doubt, Boolean variables should be exported instead. Exporting arrays works but with an important caveat: while regular arrays are created local to every class instance, exported arrays are shared between all instances.
This means that editing in one instance will cause them to change in all other instances. Exported arrays can have initializers, but they must be constant expressions. It is used directly after a variable definition:. Whenever the value of a variable is modified by an external source i.
This happens before the value is changed. The setter must decide what to do with the new value.GDscript is getting optional typing syntax in Godot 3. Where and how you use this new language feature is entirely up to you: you can use it only in some sensitive GDScript files, use it everywhere, or write code like you always did!
With typed GDscript, Godot can detect even more errors as you write code! You code an Item node, then an Inventory. To add items to the inventory, the people who work with your code should always pass an Item to the Inventory. With types, you can force them to:. Another significant advantage of typed GDScript is the new warning system. From version 3. More on that in a moment. Static types also give you better code completion options.
Below, you can see the difference between a dynamic vs. This is due to dynamic code.Godot RPG Character Stats Tutorial: Godot Open RPG
If you write the type explicitely however, you will get all public methods and variables from the node:. In the future, typed GDScript will also increase code performance: Just In Time compilation and other compiler improvements are already on the roadmap!
Overall, typed programming gives you a more structured experience. It helps prevent errors and improves the self-documenting aspect of your scripts. The clearer and the more structured the code, the faster is it to understand, the faster you can move forward. This forces the type of variable to always stay the same:.
You can use any class, including your custom classes, as types. There are two ways to use them in scripts. The first method is to preload the script you want to use as a type in a constant:. For the example above, your Rifle. Type casting is a key concept in typed languages. We call the conversion of a value from from one type of another casting. Imagine an Enemy in your game, that extends Area2D.Sometimes Godot's similarity to Python is deceiving.
I'm really struggling to understand how to use classes. I get that you build a class in a separate file and then preload or load that file into the script that you're calling it from. But I don't see how to pass in initial values or how to use the constructor. In python I would just do:.
How would I do a similar thing in Godot? Useful but still weird. Normally you can pass in initial values when you create the instance, e. So I've gotten some conflicting advice and some that I don't understand. However, I have figured this out so I thought I'd put the answer here.
First, there's the way of doing it within one script. This works as expected and is the most 'pythonic' example. The Second way is to manage classes in multiple files. But I think the cleanest and best way to manage it is a slight variation of the above. I didn't realize you could do the first one with classes. I was thinking of only nodes, and how they have to be instanced. I checked it out, and you could also keep you classes in a separate GD script and use them as such:. Yes, you can work with normal classes and inner classes that way, I thought he refered to Object subclases.
Handling Classes in Godot. Please log in or register to add a comment. Please log in or register to answer this question. There's a few ways to do this. I checked it out, and you could also keep you classes in a separate GD script and use them as such: class.This is the documentation for the stable 3. Looking for the documentation of the current development branch? Have a look here.
You can also browse the documentation for the previous stable 3. Welcome to the official documentation of Godot Engine, the free and open source community-driven 2D and 3D game engine!
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How much does it cost? What are the license terms? Which platforms are supported by Godot? Which programming languages are supported in Godot? What is GDScript and why should I use it? What were the motivations behind creating GDScript? What type of 3D model formats does Godot support? How should assets be created to handle multiple resolutions and aspect ratios? How can I extend Godot? I would like to contribute! How can I get started?
I have a great idea for Godot. How can I share it? How can I support Godot development or contribute? Who is working on Godot? How can I contact you? Documentation changelog New tutorials since version 3. Importing images Why import them? Dictionary vs. Object Enumerations: int vs. AnimatedSprite vs. AnimationPlayer vs.I'm asking because code editor highlights world "enum" and I failed to find any info abut this in documentation both on website and build-in.
Edit: I see that this is possible to use exported value like this but I wonder is there any GDScript only solution. Don't know if anyone is still looking for an answer to this, but I'm not sure when it was added or if it's in stable, but doing. Anyway, added it to the question.
It looks like the first and second combined, but I'm going to add it too For others, you can comment to the issue itself if you think you have a very bright idea.
I like the use of the class for this, I had read that static variables were not supported so I didn't want to suggest a class that had to be initialized.
Classes in GDscript
Is there way to create enums in GDScript? I'm asking because code editor highlights world "enum" and I failed to find any info abut this in documentation both on website and build-in Edit: I see that this is possible to use exported value like this but I wonder is there any GDScript only solution. I suppose this explains everything, thanks :. Please log in or register to add a comment.
Please log in or register to answer this question. It does work. I guess it's in the new build. It worked when compiled from source. I guess it wasn't in the latest stable build. About the historical context, what is funnier is that I made the enums PR to godot :D. Anyway, it is actually in 2. You could use a constant dictionary for this. And what do you think about this?
If it's bad, feel free to answer. Wow plenty of options here. Thank you, : I like subclass solution, it seems elegant. I didn't realize that constants would work for this, thank you, I've learned something today :. All categories Engine 13, Projects 1, Gossip Godot allows extending the engine in a modular way. This allows for adding new engine functionality at every level without modifying the core, which can be split for use and reuse in different modules.
By default, many different modules exist, such as GDScript which, yes, is not part of the base enginethe Mono runtime, a regular expressions module, and others.
As many new modules as desired can be created and combined, and the SCons build system will take care of it transparently. Before creating a module, make sure to download the source code of Godot and manage to compile it.
There are tutorials in the documentation for this. If you want to maintain the module separately, you can checkout a different VCS into modules and use it.
Next, we need to create a SCsub file so the build system compiles this module:. This allows for powerful possibilities using Python to construct the file list using loops and logic statements.
Look at some of the other modules that ship with Godot by default for examples. Example SCsub with custom flags:. And finally, the configuration file for the module, this is a simple python script that must be named config. You can then zip it and share the module with everyone else. When building for every platform instructions in the previous sectionsyour module will be included. The output will be The previous Summator example is great for small, custom modules, but what if you want to use a larger, external library?
Refer to Binding to external libraries for details about binding to external libraries. If your module is meant to be accessed from the running project not just from the editoryou must also recompile every export template you plan to use, then specify the path to the custom template in each export preset.
See the Compiling pages for more information. So far we defined a clean and simple SCsub that allows us to add the sources of our new module as part of the Godot binary. This static approach is fine when we want to build a release version of our game given we want all the modules in a single binary. However the trade-off is every single change means a full recompilation of the game.